Annex 1: Glossary


Weather: the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy etc. it is known as the condition of the atmosphere over a period of time. It refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity.


Climate: the average weather conditions (temperature, precipitation, sunshine, air humidity, wind speed, etc.) that prevail over a given area over a long period of time. Averages, but also extremes.


Climatology: science that study the climate. It is defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.


Meteorology: the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting.


Climate system: The term “climate system” refers to an ensemble that includes the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the geosphere, as well as their interactions.


Climate scenarios: Climate scenarios are long-term visions of future climate change (i.e.: climatic parameters) as well as the main socio-economic parameters in a given locality.


Climate variability: is defined as long-term averages and variations in weather measured over a period of several decades. Evidence for changes in the climate system abounds, from the top of the atmosphere to the depths of the oceans. Climate, sometimes understood as the “average weather,” is defined as the measurement of the mean and variability of relevant quantities of certain variables (such as temperature, precipitation or wind) over a period of time, ranging from months to thousands or millions of years.


Adaptation: is the set of responses (solutions) to the harmful or positive effects of climate change. It can be done naturally, or by a spontaneous reaction (for example in the face of a climatic disaster) or be anticipated as part of a planning.


Mitigation: is concrete measure to limit global warming.


Vulnerability: is the level at which a system can be degraded or damaged by climate change. It depends on both physical and socio-economic factors.


Resilience: A concept derived from physics, resilience refers to the ability of a material to recover its original shape after deformation.


In sociology and psychology, resilience is the ability of an individual or group to rebuild after trauma.


In ecology, resilience is defined as the ability of an ecosystem to recover its functions after major disturbances, whether natural (fire, flood, storm …) or related to human activities (hunting, agricultural practices, pesticides …) . For example, the resilience of


a forest ecosystem after a fire describes its ability to recover from the regrowth of resistant trees, seeds in the soil, wind-blown seeds, animals, etc.


In agroforestry is a set of agricultural techniques favorable to the resilience of agriculture in the face of climate change, thanks to the protection of crops against climatic excesses (wind, cold, storms, floods …), the limitation of runoff and evaporation, to the diversification of the sources of income



Climate change: According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) CCs are all changes directly or indirectly attributable to human activities that affect the composition of atmospheric air and add to the natural variability of climate.


Greenhouse effect : The greenhouse effect is the trapping in the lower layers of the atmosphere of the radiation emitted by the earth to the atmosphere.


Sustainable Development Goals: a real roadmap for sustainable development for the next 15 years, formally adopted in New York, the United Nations 2015 Summit for Sustainable Development (New York, 25-27 September 2015).


Climate services : the production and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research, which aims to support decision-making at all levels of society


Monitoring: continuous process of collecting, processing and analyzing data and information for the proper functioning of a structure. It is an internal activity that is an integral part of daily management.


Evaluation: time-limited, more comprehensive and in-depth exercise that aims to critically examine RELEVANCE, EFFECTIVENESS, EFFICIENCY, EFFECTS AND IMPACT.

From this point of view, the evaluation appears as a photo, a diagnosis, an appreciation at a given moment.


Results: qualitative and quantitative changes produced by an action. The results are directly related to the objectives of the action.


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